History of the Institute


The Central Research Institute for Physics (CRIP) starts its official work. Planned research branches: general physics (electronics, magnetic investigations, material structure research), physics of microwaves, nuclear physics, radioactivity, cosmic radiations


Among the research of other fields, neutron physics, solid state physics, and optics research start:

Department of Cosmic Radiations (Aug. 1950)

  • Physical Optics research

Department of Electromagnetic Waves (May 1951):

  • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)
  • Nuclear magnetic rezonancia (NMR)

Department of Theoretical Physics (Jan. 1953-Sept. 1954):

  • Theory of solids
  • Classical theory of atoms and nuclei

Department of Ferromagnetics (Fall 1953):

  • Quantum theory of magnetic anisotropy
  • Measurement of the microwave behaviour of permeability
  • Study of the susceptibility of cobalt
  • Design and production of devices creating homogeneous magnetic fields and measuring magnetic properties.

Department of Neutron Physics (1956):

  • Study of radiation damages of solids
  • Neutron diffraction research.
1953 The Library of the CRIP is founded.


Formation of the Laboratory of Solid State Physics.. Evolution of basics:

Solid state theory research:

  • X-ray and neutron scattering
  • Magnetic resonance
  • Measurement of transport and magnetic properties
  • Sample production
  • Technique of low temperatures
  • Development of electronical, glass-technology and mechanics background

Most efficient topics:

  • Magnetic structures and phenomena
  • Phase transformations
  • Diluted alloys
  • Superconduction


Formation of the Laboratory of Physical Optics:

  • Fluctuation of light sources
  • Coherencecapability of light
  • Interactions of light and matter
  • Optical measurement and instrument technique.


From the Departments of Neutron Physics, Ferromagnetics and Nuclear Physics two Laboratories of Nuclear Physics are established.


The Research Group for Crystal Growing of the H.A.S comes into existence at the Budapest University of Technology.


Laboratories of the CRIP are being rallied to main departments. Laboratory of Physical Optics becomes a part of Physical Research Main Department I, the Laboratories of Nuclear Physics become parts of Physical Research Main Department II., Laboratory of Solid State Physics becomes a part of Physical Research Main Department III.


Succesful reproduction of the Mössbauer Effect. Production of experimental Mössbauer instruments starts; for the tesing of these instruments a Mössbauer-measurement group is formed.


Organization of Research Group of Crystal Physics of the H.A.S., which works alongside the Biophysical Institute of the Semmelweis University of Medicine.


Start of laser research in the Laboratory of Physical Optics. Production of the first Hungarian laser.


Research contract with the Csepel Metalworks

: connection between a well functioning industrial company and a research institute doing fundamental research. Research of soft magnetic materials, high-purity copper, antimagnetic alloys, metal-gas systems, metallic glasses.

An internationally significant strong school of theoretical physics forms for the study of the physics of condensed matter.


Major Department of Solid State Physics

comes into existence.


International conmferences:

  • Magnetism
  • Electrical and magnetic properties of diluted alloys.


National Major Trend of Solid State Research

: Research of metals and alloys, semiconductors (with ion implantation), magnetic materials (with bubble storage and wire memory), optical materials (with optical storage materials). Growing of single crystals (1972), production of thin layers, research of liquid crystals (1972), production and study of metallic glasses (1976).


Formation of the Solid State Reseach Area by the fusion of Main Departments of Nuclear Chemistry, Optics, and Solid State Physics.


Formation of the Institute for Solid State Research. Major departments: Physics I., Physics II., Optics, Chemistry, Technics. Independent Department: Solid State Theory Department.


Target projects:

memory research, research and development of ion implantation (Major Department of Physics I.). Their financial and investment status was significantly better than the status of other researches.

Contractual research:

small series production of instruments, applications of lasers.

International cooperations:

  • With Dubna Center of Nuclear Research
  • Institute of Kurchatow
  • With the Comecon


By the fusion of the Research Groups for Crystal Growing, and Crystal Physics, the Research Laboratory of Crystal Physics of the H.A.S comes into existence as a part of the Research Laboratory of Natural Sciences of the H.A.S. Its research topics: growth of optical single crystals, study of crystal lattice defects, crystal-quantum chemical investigations, characterization of optical crystals, nonlinear and quantum optics.


Tensions between fundamental and applied research leads to the fission of the Institute for Solid State Research. Formation of the Research Institute for Solid State Phsyics of the CRIP (KFKI-SZFKI), and the Research Institute for Microelectronics as institutes of the CRIP.


Start of the tender system.


Organization of Materials Science Instrument Center of Budapest (BAM): specialty instrument center of public utility jointly organized by the universities and research institutes. It made aligned investments, unmonopolized use of devices, and functioning of research laboratories as educational workshops possible.


New topics:

study of high-temperature superconductors, fullerenes, low dimension systems, non-equilibrium processes, and instabilities.


Research Institute for Solid State Physics

(SZFKI) becomes an independent entity. Its departments: Theoretical Solid State Physics, Experimental Solid State Phsyics, Liquid Crystal Research, Metal Research, Neutron Physics (in 1999 the Dept. of Neutron Spectroscopy secedes from it), Laser Physics, Laser Applications.


Consolidation of the Research Network of the H.A.S: the activity of the SZFKI broadens with the activity of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics of the H.A.S. Its name changes to Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics. A new major department: Major Department of Crystal Physics, its departments: Depts. of Crystal Physics, Crystal Technology, and Nonlinear and Quantum Optics.


With the collaboration of the successor institutes of the C.R.I.P., organized by the SZFKI, a Condensed Matter Research Center is formed by the name KFKI-CMRC. The Center wins the title "Centre of Excellence"at the tender of EU 5th Frame Programme.


The Scientific Library of the former KFKI joins the Institute organisationally, although it is run and used jointly by the successor institutes. The name of the Library changes to Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Campus Library.


The Institute becomes a part of the Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the H.A.S. by the name of Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics.The KFKI Library leaves the structure of the Institute.


Reorganization of the Institute: in place of the former 10 departments only 6 remains. A research group of the Department of Laser Physics along with the Crystal Physics Department joins the Department of Laser Applications by the name Department of Applied and nonlinear Optics, the other research group of the Laser Physics Department, the Neutron Physics Department, and one of the research groups of the Metals Research Department joins the Complex Fluids department. Another of the Metals Research Department's research groups becomes part of the Theoretical Solid State Physics Department, the third research group joins the Experimental Solid State Physics Department.